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Publications from the PINTAR Study

  1. Ferdiana, A., Liverani, M., Khan, M. et al. Community pharmacies, drug stores, and antibiotic dispensing in Indonesia: a qualitative studyBMC Public Health 21, 1800 (2021).
  2. Wulandari LPL, Khan M, Liverani M, et al Prevalence and determinants of inappropriate antibiotic dispensing at private drug retail outlets in urban and rural areas of Indonesia: a mixed methods study BMJ Global Health 2021;6:e004993.
  3. Mashuri YA, Wulandari LPL, Khan M, et al The response to COVID-19 among drug retail outlets in Indonesia: A cross-sectional survey of knowledge, attitudes, and practices The Lancet Regional Health – Western Pacific
  4. Khan M, Rahman-Shepherd A, Bory S, et al How conflicts of interest hinder effective regulation of healthcare: an analysis of antimicrobial use regulation in Cambodia, Indonesia and Pakistan BMJ Global Health 2022;7:e008596.

Background literature

  1. Chee, G., Borowitz, M., & Barraclough, A. (2009). Private Health Care Sector in Indonesia. Retrieved from Bethesda, MD:
  2. Chua, S. S., Ramachandran, C. D., & Paraidathathu, T. T. (2006). Response of community pharmacists to the presentation of back pain: a simulated patient study. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 14(3), 171-178. doi:10.1211/ijpp.14.3.0003
  3. Codlin, A. J., Javaid, M., Qazi, F., & Khan, M. S. (2012). Novel methodology to assess sputum smear microscopy quality in private laboratories. BMC Infectious Diseases, 12(1), 331. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-12-331
  4. Cox, J. A., Vlieghe, E., Mendelson, M., Wertheim, H., Ndegwa, L., Villegas, M. V., . . . Levy Hara, G. (2017). Antibiotic stewardship in low- and middle-income countries: the same but different? Clinical Microbiology and Infection, 23(11), 812-818. doi:
  5. Daniels, B., Dolinger, A., Bedoya, G., Rogo, K., Goicoechea, A., Coarasa, J., . . . Das, J. (2017). Use of standardised patients to assess quality of healthcare in Nairobi, Kenya: a pilot, cross-sectional study with international comparisons. BMJ Global Health, 2(2), e000333. doi:10.1136/bmjgh-2017-000333
  6. Das, J., Holla, A., Das, V., Mohanan, M., Tabak, D., & Chan, B. (2012). In urban and rural India, a standardized patient study showed low levels of provider training and huge quality gaps. Health Aff (Millwood), 31(12), 2774-2784. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.1356
  7. Goodman, C., Kachur, S. P., Abdulla, S., Bloland, P., & Mills, A. (2007). Drug shop regulation and malaria treatment in Tanzania–why do shops break the rules, and does it matter? Health Policy Plan, 22(6), 393-403. doi:10.1093/heapol/czm033
  8. Indonesian Ministry of Health. ( 2017). Mapping of Pharmaceutical Facilities  2013 – 2016 (Aplikasi Pemetaan Sarana Kefarmasian 2013-2016). Retrieved from
  9. Kwan, A., Daniels, B., Saria, V., Satyanarayana, S., Subbaraman, R., McDowell, A., . . . Pai, M. (2018). Variations in the quality of tuberculosis care in urban India: A cross-sectional, standardized patient study in two cities. PLOS Medicine, 15(9), e1002653. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1002653
  10. Leung, E., Weil, D.E., Raviglione, M. (2011). World Health Organization world health day antimicrobial resistance technical working group. The WHO policy package to combat antimicrobial resistance. Bull World Health Organ. 2011(89):390–2.
  11. Miller, R., & Goodman, C. (2017). Do chain pharmacies perform better than independent pharmacies? Evidence from a standardised patient study of the management of childhood diarrhoea and suspected tuberculosis in urban India. BMJ Global Health, 2(3).
  12. O’Neil, J. (2016). Review on antimicrobial resistance. Tackling drug resistant infections globally: final report and recommendations. Retrieved from
  13. Peabody, J. W., Luck, J., Glassman, P., Dresselhaus, T. R., & Lee, M. (2000). Comparison of vignettes, standardized patients, and chart abstraction: A prospective validation study of 3 methods for measuring quality. JAMA, 283(13), 1715-1722. doi:10.1001/jama.283.13.1715
  14. Poyer, S., Musuva, A., Njoki, N., Okara, R., Cutherell, A., Sievers, D., . . . Charman, N. (2018). Fever case management at private health facilities and private pharmacies on the Kenyan coast: analysis of data from two rounds of client exit interviews and mystery client visits. Malaria Journal, 17(1), 112. doi:10.1186/s12936-018-2267-8
  15. Puspitasari, H. P., Faturrohmah, A., & Hermansyah, A. (2011). Do Indonesian community pharmacy workers respond to antibiotics requests appropriately? Trop Med Int Health, 16(7), 840-846. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3156.2011.02782.x
  16. Rethans, J. J., Gorter, S., Bokken, L., & Morrison, L. (2007). Unannounced standardised patients in real practice: a systematic literature review. Med Educ, 41(6), 537-549. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02689.x
  17. Satyanarayana, S., Kwan, A., Daniels, B., Subbaraman, R., McDowell, A., Bergkvist, S., . . . Pai, M. (2016). Use of standardised patients to assess antibiotic dispensing for tuberculosis by pharmacies in urban India: a cross-sectional study. Lancet Infect Dis, 16(11), 1261-1268. doi:10.1016/s1473-3099(16)30215-8
  18. Schneider, C. R., Everett, A. W., Geelhoed, E., Kendall, P. A., & Clifford, R. M. (2009). Measuring the assessment and counseling provided with the supply of nonprescription asthma reliever medication: A simulated patient study. . Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 43(9), 1512-1518. doi:10.1345/aph.1M086
  19. Sedgwick, P., & Greenwood, N. (2015). Understanding the Hawthorne effect. BMJ : British Medical Journal, 351.
  20. Wachter, D. A., Joshi, M. P., & Rimal, B. (1999). Antibiotic dispensing by drug retailers in Kathmandu, Nepal. Trop Med Int Health, 4(11), 782-788.
  21. Watson, M. C., Norris, P., & Granas, A. G. (2006). A systematic review of the use of simulated patients and pharmacy practice research. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 14(2), 83-93. doi:10.1211/ijpp.14.2.0002
  22. World Bank. (2009). Pharmaceuticals : why reform is needed (English). Indonesia health sector review : policy and discussion notes. Retrieved from Washington, DC:
  23. World Health Organisation. (2018). Antibiotic resistance. Retrieved from
  24. World Health Organization. (2001). WHO Global Strategy for Containment of Antimicrobial Resistance. Retrieved from
  25. Xu, T., de Almeida Neto, A. C., & Moles, R. J. (2012). A systematic review of simulated-patient methods used in community pharmacy to assess the provision of non-prescription medicines. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 20(5), 307-319. doi:10.1111/j.2042-7174.2012.00201.x
  26. Yeung, S., Lawford, H. L. S., Tabernero, P., Nguon, C., van Wyk, A., Malik, N., . . . Kaur, H. (2015). Quality of antimalarials at the epicenter of antimalarial drug resistance: results from an overt and mystery client survey in Cambodia. Am J Trop Med Hyg, 92(6 Suppl), 39-50. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0391


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